Skip to main content

Somatotypes



1919 G Viola

  • took 10 measurements of the body and compared the individual to a group average
  • he differentiated 3 body types

1925 E Kretschmer –

  • described 3 body types and linked them to psychiatric problems
  1. Pyknic - broad, fat, round and sturdy, often become manic depressives
  2. Leptosomic - long and thin,slender limbs,anaemic personality.
  3. Athletic - large and muscular thorax and shoulders, often are schizophrenic
His work became disused as it assumes 3 discrete types when in reality he had defined 3 extremes of groups

1940 Sheldon –

 tried to link body type to personality and disease.
  • Extreme Endomorphy
o   spherical body,
o   weak and fatty arms and thighs.
o   Slim wrists and ankles.
o   The thoracic and pelvic part of the skeleton is greater in the anteroposterior than in the transverse direction.
o   The word endomorphy is derived from endoderm, the embryonic layer from which the digestive system develops.
o   Susceptible to depression and diabetes.
  • Extreme Mesomorphy
o   Ex: The classical Hercules.
o    Broad shoulders and chest.
o    Muscled arms and legs.
o   The word mesomorphy is derived from mesoderm, the embryonic layer from which the muscle and bone develops.
o   Susceptible to paranoia, hysteria and coronary heart disease.
  • Extreme Ectomorphy
o    A Linear man, spindly limbs.
o   Narrow chest and abdomen.
o   Little muscle and little fat.
o   ectomorphy is derived from ectoderm, the embryonic layer from which the skin and nervous system develops.
o   Susceptible to anxiety, schizophrenia and pulmonary tuberculosis.

This technique was based on assessment of each component by visual observation of photographs.
Each component is rated on a scale of 1 - 7 and this is used to give a 3 digit somatotype.
most common somatotypes are 344, 433 or 352
He stated that not all parts of the body will show the same characteristics, this difference is called dysplasia.This method is no-longer used as the use of photographs to evaluate somatotype is too subjective

1968 Heath & Carter

  • Built on sheldon’s model
  • idea of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy is retained
  • included anthropometric procedures along with photographic analysis to estimate the "present morphological configuration."
  • This is the method most commonly used today
  • They developed the Heath-Carter chart, used to determine somatotype given the anthropometric data.


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram

FEATURE H&FW B.   Narzary * Reducing the maternal and infant mortality rate is the key goal feature of the Reproductive and Child Health Programme under the National Rural Health Mission. Several initiatives have been launched by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare under the Mission including  Janani   Suraksha   Yojana , a key intervention that has resulted in phenomenal growth in institutional deliveries with more than one  crore  women  beneficiaries  annually. JSY was launched to promote institutional deliveries so that skilled attendance at birth is made available  and  mothers and new born babies can be saved from pregnancy related complications and deaths.

NIOS to open study centre at Gaghidh central jail

Jamshedpur : In a boost to increase educational opportunities for inmates of the Gaghidih central jail, the prison administration has joined hands with National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). The NIOS regional office has agreed to open study centre in the Gaghidih jail next month. To start with, 30 inmates of the jail will pursue matriculation and senior secondary board examinations through NIOS study centres. "Initially, 30 inmates will pursue their academic career through NIOS and the classes shall begin by July," said jail superintendent Tushar Ranjan Gupta. The state government will bear the study expenses of the inmates. The NIOS will charge about Rs 2,000 from each inmate who seeks to appear in any of the two examinations. The institute will conduct biennial examinations In April and October every year. According to sources, out of the 12-odd CPI (Maoist) rebels who are currently lodged in the jail, a few have expressed their desire to pursue studies

Preamble : Constitution of India : IAS Notes

Pic courtesy : http://hyderabad-india-online.com/ Preamble - Bare -  http://www.ankitrajvanshi.in/2012/11/preamble-bare.html "Preamble is a microcosm of the constitution and is a key to the constitution." Preamble is not enforceable Words socialist, secular and integrity  was added by the 42nd constitutional amendment of 1976 Preambular values Sovereignity : Sovereignity is a characteristic of the government. It means that there is no authority above the government either outside or inside the country. ** Preamble of India establishes popular sovereignity and not parliamentary sovereignity. Socialist : Socialism means ownership of productive forces by the government so that they benefit people equitably. Secular : Secularism means separation of religion from politics. Religion is private while politics is public. Democracy : Democracy means rule by the people. Republic : Republic is a political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens.