Skip to main content

Somatotypes



1919 G Viola

  • took 10 measurements of the body and compared the individual to a group average
  • he differentiated 3 body types

1925 E Kretschmer –

  • described 3 body types and linked them to psychiatric problems
  1. Pyknic - broad, fat, round and sturdy, often become manic depressives
  2. Leptosomic - long and thin,slender limbs,anaemic personality.
  3. Athletic - large and muscular thorax and shoulders, often are schizophrenic
His work became disused as it assumes 3 discrete types when in reality he had defined 3 extremes of groups

1940 Sheldon –

 tried to link body type to personality and disease.
  • Extreme Endomorphy
o   spherical body,
o   weak and fatty arms and thighs.
o   Slim wrists and ankles.
o   The thoracic and pelvic part of the skeleton is greater in the anteroposterior than in the transverse direction.
o   The word endomorphy is derived from endoderm, the embryonic layer from which the digestive system develops.
o   Susceptible to depression and diabetes.
  • Extreme Mesomorphy
o   Ex: The classical Hercules.
o    Broad shoulders and chest.
o    Muscled arms and legs.
o   The word mesomorphy is derived from mesoderm, the embryonic layer from which the muscle and bone develops.
o   Susceptible to paranoia, hysteria and coronary heart disease.
  • Extreme Ectomorphy
o    A Linear man, spindly limbs.
o   Narrow chest and abdomen.
o   Little muscle and little fat.
o   ectomorphy is derived from ectoderm, the embryonic layer from which the skin and nervous system develops.
o   Susceptible to anxiety, schizophrenia and pulmonary tuberculosis.

This technique was based on assessment of each component by visual observation of photographs.
Each component is rated on a scale of 1 - 7 and this is used to give a 3 digit somatotype.
most common somatotypes are 344, 433 or 352
He stated that not all parts of the body will show the same characteristics, this difference is called dysplasia.This method is no-longer used as the use of photographs to evaluate somatotype is too subjective

1968 Heath & Carter

  • Built on sheldon’s model
  • idea of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy is retained
  • included anthropometric procedures along with photographic analysis to estimate the "present morphological configuration."
  • This is the method most commonly used today
  • They developed the Heath-Carter chart, used to determine somatotype given the anthropometric data.


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Union HRD Minister to Release NBT-NCAER Study on Reading Habits of the Literate Youth of North-East India

Youth of North-East India: Demographics and Readership (Highlights) Union Human Resource Development Minister Dr M  M   Pallam   Raju ,  will release a report  Youth of North-East India: Demographics and Readership  in New Delhi tomorrow,  20 th  November, 2012. Ministers of State for HRD,  Sh   Jitin   Prasada  and Dr  Shashi   Tharoor  would also be present on the occasion. This focused Report attempts to give an analytical and detailed account of the reading habits of the literate youth in the north-eastern states and their exposure to different forms of media, and how diverse socio-economic and motivational factors impact their reading habit. The reading of ‘leisure or non-text books’ among the literate youth is the special focus of the study. The Report is a follow-up study of the  National Youth Readership Survey  (2009-10) assigned to National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) by the NBT under the National Action Plan for the Readership Development amon

NIOS to open study centre at Gaghidh central jail

Jamshedpur : In a boost to increase educational opportunities for inmates of the Gaghidih central jail, the prison administration has joined hands with National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). The NIOS regional office has agreed to open study centre in the Gaghidih jail next month. To start with, 30 inmates of the jail will pursue matriculation and senior secondary board examinations through NIOS study centres. "Initially, 30 inmates will pursue their academic career through NIOS and the classes shall begin by July," said jail superintendent Tushar Ranjan Gupta. The state government will bear the study expenses of the inmates. The NIOS will charge about Rs 2,000 from each inmate who seeks to appear in any of the two examinations. The institute will conduct biennial examinations In April and October every year. According to sources, out of the 12-odd CPI (Maoist) rebels who are currently lodged in the jail, a few have expressed their desire to pursue studies

Patriotic Songs by Retd. IPS Sheel Madhur